Dye:Mordant Ratios
for Aluminum Hematoxylin Formulations

The chart below compares the ratio of mordant to dye in aluminum hematoxylin formulae. Weights are in grams, ratios are number:1. Immediately following the chart is the information on which the calculations were based. Slight discrepancies in the figures are due to rounding.

The figures in the three yellow columns give the weight in grams of the dye, the mordant and the ratio between them. The column marked Mordant contains the weight of the aluminum source compound. In most cases this is ammonium or potassium alum. Where another source compound is specified it is noted. The number in the ratio column represents the amount of aluminum source compound available for each gram of dye.

The figures in the pale brown columns give the amount of aluminum, in grams, required to give a 1:1 molecular ratio with the dye, the weight in grams of aluminum actually available, and the multiple by which the aluminum available exceeds the amount required. A number less then 1 in this column indicates there is less than a 1:1 molar ratio.

Note:
Ehrlich's formula specifies saturation of the solvent with potassium alum. The solvent is an equal parts mixture of water, glycerol and ethanol with a small amount of acetic acid. Potassium alum saturates in water at just under 14% and is freely soluble in glycerol, but the amount the solvent mixture dissolves is not given. The amount of potassium alum listed for Ehrlich's formula is an estimate and is not based on any information.

 

Formulation Dye
Grams
Mordant
Grams
Ratio
D:M
Aluminum
Needed
Al
Available
Ratio
N:A
Mordant
Source
Anderson 1923a 2.5 20 8.0 0.22 1.19 5.3 Amm. Alum
Anderson 1923b 2.5 125 50.0 0.22 7.44 33.1 Amm. Alum
Anderson 1929 5.0 30 6.0 0.45 1.79 4.0 Amm. Alum
Apathy 3.0 30 10.0 0.27 1.79 6.6 Amm. Alum
Baker Hematal-8 0.94 8 8.4 0.08 1.24 14.7 Al sulphate
Baker Hematal-16 0.47 8 16.8 0.04 1.24 29.4 Al sulphate
Bencosme 2.0 133 67.5 0.18 7.57 42.1 Pot. Alum
Bennett 1.0 90 90.0 0.09 5.12 57.0 Pot. Alum
Bosma 2.5 25 10.0 0.22 1.49 6.6 Amm. Alum
Bullard 8.0 60 2.5 0.72 3.57 4.95 Amm. Alum
Carazzi 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.84 31.6 Pot. Alum
Cole 1903 6.0 6 1.0 0.54 0.36 0.7 Amm. Alum
Cole 1943 1.5 100 66.7 0.13 5.95 44.2 Amm. Alum
Debiden 5.0 100 20.0 0.45 5.69 12.7 Pot. Alum
de Groot 2.0 22 11.0 0.18 1.31 7.3 Amm. Alum
Delafield 6.0 90 15.0 0.54 5.36 9.9 Amm. Alum
Ehrlich 6.0 50 8.3 0.54 2.84 5.3 Pot. Alum
Friedlander 6.0 6 1.0 0.54 0.34 0.6 Pot. Alum
Gadsdon 5.5 60 10.9 0.49 3.41 6.9 Pot. Alum
Gage 1.0 40 40.0 0.09 2.28 25.3 Pot. Alum
Galigher 5.0 3 0.6 0.45 0.18 0.4 Amm. Alum
Garvey 2.5 45 18.0 0.22 2.56 11.4 Pot. Alum
Gill I 2.0 18 8.8 0.18 2.78 15.4 Al sulphate
Gill III 4.0 70 17.6 0.36 11.10 30.9 Al sulphate
Gill III 6.0 158 26.4 0.54 24.98 46.3 Al sulphate
Graham 2.0 25 12.5 0.18 3.94 21.9 Al sulphate
Hamilton 2.0 75 37.5 0.18 4.46 24.8 Amm. Alum
Harris 5.0 100 20.0 0.45 5.69 12.6 Pot. Alum
Harris & Power 20.0 60 3.0 1.80 3.41 1.9 Pot. Alum
Haug 5.5 5 0.9 0.49 0.96 1.9 Al acetate
Hine 1.0 4 3.8 0.09 0.59 6.6 Al sulphate
Horneyold 8.4 4 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.3 Amm. Alum
Krutsay 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.84 31.6 Pot. Alum
Langeron 1924 4.0 50 12.5 0.36 2.84 7.9 Amm. Alum
Langeron 1942 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.84 31.6 Pot. Alum
Launoy 10.0 5 0.5 0.90 0.79 0.9 Pot. Alum
Lee 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.98 33.1 Amm. Alum
Lillie 5.0 50 10.0 0.45 2.98 6.6 Amm. Alum
McLachlan var I 2.0 17.5 8.8 0.18 2.76 15.4 Al sulphate
McLachlan var II 2.0 25 12.5 0.18 1.49 8.3 Amm. Alum
Mallory 2.5 50 20.0 0.22 2.84 12.7 Pot. Alum
Mallory & Wright 1.0 140 140.0 0.09 8.33 92.7 Amm. Alum
Mann 6.0 35 5.8 0.54 1.99 3.7 Pot. Alum
Martinotti 2.0 15 7.5 0.18 0.89 5.0 Pot. Alum
Masson 20.0 60 3.0 1.80 3.41 1.9 Pot. Alum
Mayer 1891, 1903 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.98 33.1 Amm. Alum
Mayer 1901 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.84 31.6 Pot. Alum
Mayer 1896 4.0 50 12.5 0.36 2.98 8.3 Amm. Alum
Molnar I 10.0 50 5.0 0.90 2.98 or 2.85 3.3 or 3.2 Amm./Pot. Alum
Molnar II 4.0 50 12.5 0.36 2.98 or 2.85 8.3 or 7.9 Amm./Pot. Alum
Papamiltiades 4.0 10 2.5 0.36 1.58 4.4 Al sulphate
Pusey 1.6 60 37.5 0.14 3.57 24.8 Amm. Alum
Rawitz 1895a 10.0 10 1.0 0.90 0.57 0.6 Pot. Alum
Rawitz 1895b 2.5 15 6.0 0.22 0.89 4.0 Amm. Alum
Rawitz 1909 2.0 20 10.0 0.18 1.44 8.0 Al nitrate
Reddy 6.4 60 9.4 0.58 3.57 6.2 Amm. Alum
Sass var I 10.0 140 14.0 0.90 8.33 9.3 Amm. Alum
Sass var II 1.0 50 50.0 0.09 2.98 33.1 Amm. Alum
Schmorl 5.0 100 20.0 0.45 5.95 13.2 Amm. Alum
Scott 3.0 21 7.0 0.27 1.19 4.4 Pot. Alum
Slidders 1.0 100 100.0 0.09 5.69 63.3 Pot. Alum
Unna 3.0 140 46.7 0.27 8.33 30.9 Amm. Alum
Watson 6.0 6 1.0 0.54 0.36 0.7 Amm. Alum
Item Hematein Amm. Alum Pot. Alum Al. Sulphate Al. Acetate Al. Nitrate Al. Chloride Aluminum
FW 300.272 453.33 474.39 342.15 140.65 375.14 133.34 26.9815
Al atoms 1 1 2 1 1 1
Amount Al 0.0899 0.0595 0.0569 0.1577 0.1918 0.0719 0.2023

 


 

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