Carmine

Property Data
Common name
Suggested name
Other names
 
C.I. number
C.I. name
Class
Ionisation
Solubility aqueous
Solubility ethanol
Absorption maximum
 
Colour
Empirical formula
Formula weight
Carmine
Carmine
Cochineal
Carminic acid
75470
Natural red 4
Natural
Acid
Soluble
Soluble
500 (Merck)
495 (Aldrich)
Red
C22H20O13
492.4

Carminic acid is the active colouring agent in both carmine and the less pure cochineal. It is rarely used in practice, however, since the considerably more easily obtained carmine is as effective in biological staining. Carmine is a valuable dye, which is invariably applied in conjunction with a mordant, usually aluminum. It can be used to stain glycogen (Best's carmine), acid mucopolysaccharides (mucicarmine), and nuclei (carmalum). Carmine is obtained from the bodies of the female of the insect Coccus cacti.

Compare this dye with other dyes obtained from the bodies of insects, Kermes and Lac.

 

Reference
R. D. Lillie.
Conn's Biological Stains
Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD., U.S.A.

Susan Budavari, Editor, (1996)
The Merck Index, Ed. 12
Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA

Aldrich chemical catalogue, 1992
Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

 


 

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